How much coal does it take to produce steel?
According to the World Coal Association, around 770 kilograms of met coal makes 600 kilograms of coke, which in turn produces one tonne (1000 kilograms) of steel using a basic oxygen furnace. Basic oxygen furnaces are currently used to produce about 74 per cent of the world’s steel.
Is coal needed to make steel?
Coal and coke
Coking coal is a key raw material in steel production. As iron occurs only as iron oxides in the earth’s crust, the ores must be converted, or ‘reduced’, using carbon. The primary source of this carbon is coking coal.
How much does it cost to produce a ton of steel?
The price of steel (at the time of writing this) is about $550 per ton. We can estimate the production costs due to the energy required by assuming that the creation of pig iron and the basic oxygen furnace use coal or natural gas to power the process and an electric arc furnace uses pure electricity.
Why is coke used instead of coal?
The single most important factor is strength ( mechanical compressive ); coal is heated to make coke, the resulting coke is stronger than the original coal. Also, coke helps to make the charge of iron oxides and limestone more porous to permit gas flow up and droplets of liquid iron and slag down.
Is coke obtained from coal?
Coke is produced by heating coal at high temperatures, for long periods of time. This heating is called “thermal distillation” or “pyrolysis.” In order to produce coke that will be used in blast furnaces, coal is usually thermally distilled for 15 to 18 hours, but the process can take up to 36 hours.
Is there an alternative to coking coal?
Blast furnaces need coal, but there is an alternative technology called an Electric Arc Furnace (EAF). This is responsible for approximately 30% of the world’s steel production and does not require coal.
Can steel be made without fossil fuels?
Swedish green steel venture HYBRIT says it has made the world’s first customer delivery of steel produced without using coal as it looks to revolutionize an industry that accounts for around eight per cent of global greenhouse gas emissions.