How do you calculate the ultimate analysis of coal?

What is the formula for the ultimate analysis of coal?

Ultimate analysis of a sample of coal was found to contain percentage by weight of following elements: C=86.80. H=4.25. … Calculate the weight of theoretical air for complete combustion of 1 kg of fuel and the weight of products of combustion per kg of fuel burnt.

What is consist of ultimate analysis?

Ultimate analysis is defined as the determination of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and sulfur in a wide type of organic and inorganic samples, both solid and liquid.

How is coal analyzed?

Palynology: identifies fossil spores and pollens in coal and shale for correlation and reconstruction of original coal-forming mires. Petrographic analysis: examines microscopic components of coal. Proximate analysis: determines moisture, volatile matter, ash yield, and fixed carbon content in coal.

How do you calculate coal FC?

measurement in coal

Fixed carbon is the solid combustible residue that remains after a coal particle is heated and the volatile matter is expelled. The fixed-carbon content of a coal is determined by subtracting the percentages of moisture, volatile matter, and ash from a sample.

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What is the main function of proximate analysis of coal?

Proximate analysis covers the determination of moisture, volatile matter, fixed carbon, and ash in coals and cokes, and is used to establish the rank of coals, to show the ratio of combustible to incombustible constituents, or to provide the basis for buying/selling, and otherwise evaluating coal for various purposes.

How do you do proximate analysis?

2.3.1 Chemical composition

Proximate analysis is one of the first analyses performed on coal after mining. The test involves heating the coal under various conditions for variable amounts of time to determine moisture, volatile matter, fixed carbon, and ash yield.

What is the difference between proximate and ultimate analysis?

Proximate analysis of coal is an assay of the quantity of the coal. The ultimate analysis is the element analysis of the coal. … It is used for classification, the gradation of coal and predicting its industrial use. It is used to find the calorific value of the coal and heat balance sheets.

What is Dulong formula for calorific value?

1. Calculate the net calorific value of a coal sample having the following composition: C=80%, H=5%, O=4%, N=3%, S=3.5% and ash=5%. Explanation: Apply the dulong’s formula that is: HCV = 1/100[8080C + 34500(H-O/8) + 22400S], here the C, S, O, H are the percentages of carbon, sulphur, oxygen and hydrogen.

What are the two types of coal?

Types of coal

  • Anthracite contains 86%–97% carbon and generally has the highest heating value of all ranks of coal. …
  • Bituminous coal contains 45%–86% carbon. …
  • Subbituminous coal typically contains 35%–45% carbon, and it has a lower heating value than bituminous coal.
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What is the procedure of coal?

The elements of a surface mining operation are (1) topsoil removal and storage for later use, (2) drilling and blasting the strata overlying the coal seam, (3) loading and transporting this fragmented overburden material (called spoil), (4) drilling and blasting the coal seam, (5) loading and transporting the coal, (6) …

How many types of coal analysis are there?

Coal comes in four main types or ranks: lignite or brown coal, bituminous coal or black coal, anthracite and graphite. Each type of coal has a certain set of physical parameters which are mostly controlled by moisture, volatile content (in terms of aliphatic or aromatic hydrocarbons) and carbon content.

What is coal fuel ratio?

The content of fixed carbon divided by the content of volatile matter is called the fuel ratio. According to their fuel ratios, coals have been classified as anthracite, at least 10; semianthracite, 6 to 10; semibituminous, 3 to 6; and bituminous, 3 or less.

What is the GCV of coal?

The gradation of non-coking coal is based on Gross Calorific Value (GCV), the gradation of coking coal is based on ash content and for semi coking /weakly coking coal it is based on ash plus moisture content, as in vogue as per notification.

Coal Grades.

GCV BAND (K.Cal./Kg.) GRADE
Exceeding 2200 and not exceeding 2500 G-17