What is commercial coal mining Upsc?

What is commercial coal mining in India?

Commercial coal mining is open to the private sector, as India had nationalized its coal mining industry in 1973. Since that time, state-owned Coal India and its subsidiaries have dominated the coal mining business, accounting now for over 80% of India’s coal output.

What are the two types of mining for coal?

Coal can be extracted from the earth either by surface mining or underground mining. Once coal has been extracted, it can be used directly (for heating and industrial processes) or to fuel power plants for electricity.

Who controls coal mines in India?

The coal industry in India was thus controlled by state-owned companies in the 1950s. Today, SCCL is a joint undertaking of Government of Telangana and Government of India sharing its equity in 51:49 ratio.

Why was coal sector Nationalised?

NATIONALISATION OF COAL MINES

Unscientific mining practices adopted by some of them and poor working conditions of labour in some of the private coal mines became matters of concern for the Government. On account of these reasons, the Central Government took a decision to nationalise the private coal mines.

What do you mean by commercial mining?

What is commercial mining? Commercial mining allows the private sector to mine coal commercially without placing any end-use restrictions. The private firms have the option of either gasification of the coal or exporting it. They can also use it in their own end-use plants or sell them in the markets.

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What is end-use restrictions?

Of the 204 coal blocks whose allocation was cancelled by the Supreme Court in 2014, only 29 could be auctioned as some of these mines had end-use restrictions – meaning coal produced from them could be used only for the designated captive purpose only and not traded in the market.

Is coal still being formed?

Coal is very old. The formation of coal spans the geologic ages and is still being formed today, just very slowly. Below, a coal slab shows the footprints of a dinosaur (the footprints where made during the peat stage but were preserved during the coalification process).

What is the formula of coal?

The chemical formula of coal is reported as: C135H96O9NS. Coal is usually taken as 85% carbon based on dry mass.

What is the most common method for mining coal?

Surface/Opencast

As one of the most popular methods of coal mining, the surface technique consists of five main forms: strip mining, open-pit mining, mountaintop removal, dredging and highwall mining.