What is called coal bed methane?
Coalbed methane (CBM) is an unconventional form of natural gas found in coal deposits or coal seams and now considered an alternative source for augmenting India’s energy resource. CBM is formed during the process of coalification – the transformation of plant material into coal.
Why is coal bed methane?
Methane is generally considered a cleaner form of energy than traditional coal and oil. Exploration costs for CBM are low, and wells used to extract CBM are cost effective to drill. Because methane is less dense than oxygen, it rises to the surface as water pressure is reduced within the coal seam by pumping.
What are the two types of coal seam gas?
CSG is almost pure methane; conventional gas is around 90 per cent methane with ethane, propane, butane and other hydrocarbons making up the remainder. The difference between CSG/shale gas and conventional gas is the type of geological rock they are found in.
What is the difference between coal bed methane and shale gas?
Coalbed methane is natural gas produced from coalbeds in the same way that methane is produced from other strata. Shale gas is produced from reservoirs composed of shale. Gas shales are often source rocks and the reservoir source for natural gas.
What is syngas formula?
Synthesis gas, or syngas, produced from coal gasification, is a mixture of gases, predominantly carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen (H2), along with small amounts of carbon dioxide (CO2). Calgon is sodium hexametaphosphate (Na6P6O18). It is used to remove permanent hardness(due to Mg2+, Ca2+ ions) of water.
Is methane found in coal?
Coal mine methane (CMM) refers to methane released from the coal and surrounding rock strata due to mining activities. In underground mines, it can create an explosive hazard to coal miners, so it is removed through ventilation systems.
How do you make coal bed methane?
Coalbeds are a source of unconventional gas. CBM is naturally created during the geologic process of converting plant material to coal (coalification). To extract the methane, CBM operators drill wells into coal seams and pump out ground water (produced water or CBM wastewater).
Why is coal seam gas so controversial?
Possible environmental effects: environmental groups have raised concerns that CSG development might cause environmental damage through release of untreated production water at the surface; damage to, and contamination of underground aquifers by hydraulic fracturing; damage to wildlife habitat in sensitive areas and …
Is coal seam gas fracking?
In some cases hydraulic fracturing, or ‘fracking’, is used to extract coal seam gas. Hydraulic fracturing is the process of injecting fluid under high pressure into a coal seam to widen existing fractures and create new ones.
How do you extract gas from coal?
The process involves pumping oxygen and steam through a small borehole into the coal seam to produce a small and controlled combustion. Unlike coal-bed methane, therefore, the actual coal is converted from a solid state into gas.