Does cement require coal?
For integrated cement plants, energy in the form of heat is required to raise the kiln temperature to over 1,450 degrees Celsius required to produce clinker. This heat is predominantly generated by coal and natural gas, and to a lesser extent by diesel oil.
Where coal is used in cement plant?
The cement industry mainly uses non coking bituminous coal and lignite in small quantities in plants in Tamil Nadu and Rajasthan. Specifically, the coal used by the Cement Industry is of grade G4, G5, G6, G7, G8 and G9.
How much coal is used in cement production?
Early cement plants used coal for drying slurry and for power generation, and coke for kiln burning. Per tonne of clinker produced, consumption was around 0.5 tonnes of coke and 0.1 tonnes of coal.
What type of coal is used in cement plants?
Bituminous coals make the best coke and are in any case the most common, and these are most often used in the cement industry, although steam coals are occasionally used. When burning a pulverised fuel, higher volatiles are preferred because they speed up ignition and allow a coarser grind to be used.
What can I use instead of cement?
Concrete: Cement Substitutes
- Pulverised Fuel Ash (PFA), aka ‘Fly ash’ as a cement substitute. PFA is a by-product of coal-burning power stations. …
- Ground Granulated Blast-furnace Slag (GGBS) as a cement substitute. GGBS is a by-product of the iron and steel industry. …
- Silica fume. …
- Limestone fines. …
- Alternative fuels.
How is coal used in cement industries?
Coal almost halves the cost of fuel. … The cost of fuel constitutes 25 per cent of the total cost of manufacturing cement. A cement factory with a capacity of 2000 tons per day can save up to Rs300 million a year by use of a mixture of local and imported coal.
What fuel is used in cement kilns?
Traditionally, fossil fuels [coal, pet coke as well as a limited amount of gas and oil] have been burnt to generate the temperatures of around 1450oC needed to produce cement. World-wide, waste-derived fuels have been used for many years to partially replace fossil fuels in cement manufacture.
How is hydrogen used in cement production?
Hydrogen use in cement production
By replacing some of the coal or natural gas, the use of low-carbon hydrogen as a fuel could reduce some emissions coming from the cement industry. However, the flame coming from hydrogen combustion has different properties to the heat coming from the fuels currently used [xxvi].
Can hydrogen be used to produce cement?
Both hydrogen and oxygen can be used to support decarbonisation of cement production. This means that there is a perfect fit with electrolysis which generates both gases simultaneously.
What is AFR in cement industry?
The sourcing of suitable waste as a feedstock, its appropriate pre-treatment and technical evaluation are, on the other hand, the essential preconditions for practicable “co-processing”, the term used to describe thermal valorization, including the clinkerization of minerals. …